"The Bible speaks of the Ark leveling mountains and laying waste to entire regions. An army which carries the Ark before it is invincible."―Marcus Brody[src]
The Ark of the Covenant or The Ark is a biblical artifact. According to the Bible, the Ark was a wooden chest used by the ancient Hebrews to carry the Ten Commandments, the budded staff of Aaron, and a pot of manna.
Around 1400 BC, after the Ten Commandments were smashed by Moses, the pieces were collected in the Ark of the Covenant, a gold-gilded wooden chest constructed under instruction from God and carried before the Hebrews on their march towards the Promised Land."The Ark. If it is there at Tanis, then it is something that man was not meant to disturb. Death has always surrounded it. It is not of this Earth."―Sallah to Indiana Jones, about the Ark[src]
When the Hebrews settled in Canaan, they placed the Ark in the Temple of Solomon where it stayed until around 980 BC when the Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak raided the Temple and took the Ark with him to the city of Tanis. Following a series of dreams in which he was visited by Osiris urging him to hide it from the eyes of the sun god Amun-Ra, Shishak had the Ark placed inside the Well of the Souls. A Map Room was built so that only Ra could know the Ark's whereabouts but a year later the Israelites' God saw to it that Tanis itself was buried in a sandstorm and the Ark was lost to the passage of time.
Adolf Hitler became interested in acquiring the Ark and its fabled powers in order to achieve world domination. In 1936, when US agents Colonel Musgrove and Major Eaton discovered Hitler's plan through an intercepted German communique sent from Cairo, they consulted Indiana Jones and his friend Marcus Brody about the artifact. Jones explained some of the history of the Ark to the government men, showing them a depiction of the Ark's destructive power after which Brody noted that any army which carried the Ark before it would be invincible. Eaton and Musgrove subsequently hired Jones to find the Ark before the Nazis. Although the archaeologist managed to acquire the Ark out from under the German expedition, it was later captured by Nazis nonetheless.
The Ark changed hands between Indy and the Nazis several times before the Nazis took the Ark to a secret island base near Crete. After René Emile Belloq performed a Hebrew ritual, the Ark was opened. Inside was sand, all that was left of the Ten Commandments. While Belloq looked upon the sand with an anguished expression on his face, a sudden screeching noise drew his attention. Moments later, a power surge from the Ark disabled all the lights, electronics and weapons in the vicinity, some blowing up in the soldiers' hands.
Ghostly apparitions emerged from within and swarmed playfully about the Nazis before adopting a more sinister tone; the spirits transformed their appearances from angelic beings into monstrous demons. Rooted to the spot with fear, the Nazis beheld a pillar of holy fire rising from the Ark and coalescing around Belloq before shooting bolts of fiery energy through the assembled soldiers, killing them. The Ark then turned its full and terrible wrath onto Belloq and his cohorts: Colonel Herman Dietrich's head imploded, Major Arnold Ernst Toht's face melted off his skull and Belloq's head exploded. The Ark then swept their remains into the air to have their souls judged, then fire shot the cover into the sky before it fell back onto the Ark. The captured Indy, witnessing energy beginning to come out of the Ark, realized what was about to happen. Warning Marion Ravenwood, they closed their eyes and looked away from the Ark symbolically showing proper respect, and were spared from the wrath of God.
Afterwards, instead of giving the Ark to the National Museum as agreed, the US government took possession of it. Though Jones and Brody were told by Major Eaton that it was to be studied by higher authorities, the relic was simply nailed inside a wooden crate numbered 9906753 and placed inside a gigantic warehouse among hundreds of similar crates.
Two years after discovering the Ark, Jones later uncovered a wall painting depicting the Ark in some tunnels beneath the Biblioteca di San Barnaba in Venice. When Elsa Schneider asked what the image was, Jones confirmed that it was the Ark, mumbling that he was "Pretty sure..." given past encounters.
Over two decades later, in 1957, Jones was taken to the warehouse when captured by Soviets looking for a different crate. The box containing the Ark was broken during the subsequent action, but the preoccupied Jones and his pursuers did not notice it.
Behind the scenesEdit
Though the Ark is described in the Bible, some elements of the Ark were altered in the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. For example, Brody's statement that "the Bible speaks of the Ark leveling mountains and laying waste to entire regions" is only partially accurate (when it was captured by the Philistines it "laid waste" to their "region" via bubonic plague), though the Bible does state the Ark had supernatural powers. Plus the Ark is supposed to have the second set of the Ten Commandments written in it, which are whole, not the first broken pair. Although a Rabbinic tradition states that Moses also put the broken fragments of the first tablets of the Law into the Ark."Never touch it."―Indiana Jones to Sallah of the Ark[src]
The punishment of death upon Belloq and the Nazis for disturbing the Ark is inspired by a Bible reference in 1 Samuel 6:19 when 70 people of Beth-Shemesh were struck down because they looked into the Ark. In the novelization, Jones prevents Sallah from almost touching the Ark, and instead instructs that it be carried out with a set of poles.
Also, the Bible relates a command by King Josiah of Judah in 2 Chronicles 35:3 for the Levites to "Put the sacred ark in the temple that Solomon built". Since King Josiah reigned from 640 - 609 BC, and the Bible mentions the Ark as being present in Jerusalem during his reign over three hundred years after Shishak's invasion, the Tanis theory is actually, in real life, false.
The actual fate of the Ark, if the artifact exists, continues to elude archaeologists. The city of Tanis is one of many locations where it is theorized the Ark may lie, although the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Ethiopia claims to have the true Ark safely kept in the Chapel of the Tablet. The Ark's guardian, and only he, is allowed to see it. Catholics also believe that Mary, the Mother if Jesus, is the new Ark of the Covenant due to similarities between her and the actual Ark.
The design of the prop Ark used in the film was based on artwork by the nineteenth century painter James Tissot. The actual prop, meanwhile, resides in the art room of the Lucasfilm Ltd. archives at Skywalker Ranch.
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles – "Jerusalem, June 1909" (Mentioned only) (Cancelled)
- The Day of Destiny (Mentioned only)
- The Secret Treaty (Mentioned only)
- The Rule of Russia (Mentioned only)
- Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx (Mentioned only)
- Raiders of the Lost Ark novel (First appearance)
- Raiders of the Lost Ark
- Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark junior novel
- Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (Image on wall)
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade novel (Mentioned only)
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade junior novel (Mentioned only)
- Indiana Jones and the Golden Fleece (Mentioned only)
- Indiana Jones and the Pyramid of the Sorcerer (Mentioned only)
- Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
- Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull novel
- LEGO Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures (Non-canonical appearance)
- LEGO Indiana Jones 2: The Adventure Continues (Non-canonical appearance)
- Grail Diary
- The World of Indiana Jones
- Raiders of the Lost Ark Sourcebook
- Close Encounters of the Random Kind (Ambiguously canonical source)
- Indiana Jones and the Lands of Adventure
- Indiana Jones and the Tomb of the Templars
- Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Sourcebook
- Indiana Jones: The Ultimate Guide
- The Lost Journal of Indiana Jones
- Indiana Jones: The Official Magazine 3
- Indy's Notebook: "Indiana Jones and the Lost Ark!" – Indiana Jones Comic 7
- "The Ark of the Covenant" – Indiana Jones: The Official Magazine 4
Notes and referencesEdit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Indy's Notebook: "Indiana Jones and the Lost Ark!" – Indiana Jones Comic 7
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Raiders of the Lost Ark
- ↑ Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
- ↑ Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
- ↑ 'Star Wars' trilogy is retold in new kids' book at USA Today
- Ark of the Covenant on Wikipedia
- TheBibleProject.com's image of Tissot's "The Ark of the Covenant"
- TheBibleProject.com: Tissot illustration "The Ark Passes Over The Jordan"
- TheBibleProject.com: Tissot illustration "The Seven Trumpets of Jericho" (Featuring the Ark)
- Smithsonian.com article: "Keepers of the Lost Ark?" (Ethiopian claim to Ark)