Europe is the one of the smaller continents in the world, located west of Asia, east of the Atlantic Ocean, and north of Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. It covers a broad variety of environments and terrains, ranging from the frozen tundra and forests in Scandinavia to the farmlands of the northern European plain, to the mountainous Alps and the Mediterranean coasts and islands. It is home to much of Western civilization.
Many parts of Europe have a long history of human development, from the paleolithic era, to the development of early civilizations in Greece, to the formation of the ancient classical civilations of Greece and Rome. After the fall of Rome, Europe entered the middle ages, where barbarism and agricultural feudalism predominated. By the fifteenth centuries, Europe began to emerge and re-organize its social and economic structures. Through the next few centuries, European powers contested against each other militarily and economically, as they began to colonize the other continents, like North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia and develop their own industrial base. In the nineteenth century, many of the countries of Europe changed in revolutions from being monarchies rules by dynastic families to modern nation-states, setting up a series of political alliances.
In the twentieth century, World War I happened as the balance of power between these alliances came into conflict, pitting France, Russia and the United Kingdom against Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. After the war, the balance of power was shifted to punish Germany, which led to the rise of the Nazi party. After German began flexing its political muscle to bring more territory under its control, World War II started they invaded Poland in 1939, and France and the United Kingdom entered the fight on Poland's behalf. While the German and Italian forces managed to conquer much of Europe, eventually they were defeated by the Allies, strengthened by the inclusion of American forces.
By the twentieth century, the European powers controlled much of Africa and Asia. After World War II, the European colonizers eventually granted independence to their remaining colonies in Asia and Africa.
Adventures in Europe[edit | edit source]
Indiana Jones journeyed to Europe many times in his life. As a child, he visited the United Kingdom, Greece, Russia, France, and Austria while on his father's world lecture tour in the years 1908 - 1910.
Deciding to participate in World War I, Jones joined the Belgian miltary with his friend Remy Baudouin, after stopping in Ireland on the way to the United Kingdom. During the war, Jones fought in France, escaped from military prisons in Germany, and later went on espionage missions in Barcelona, Prague, Vienna, Saint Petersburg, and even Transylvania. Eventually, he helped at the Versailles treaty conference after the close of the war, in Paris.
As an archaeologist, Jones had many adventures in Europe, studying at the Sorbonne, and exploring many sites across the continent.
In 1938, Jones went on the search for the Holy Grail, finding out key information in Venice, rescuing his father at Castle Brunwald, and driving to Berlin to regain his father's Grail Diary, before escaping from Germany in a zeppelin.
In 1945, Jones was on a dig in Ireland with Brendan O'Neal, when his father summoned him to Glastonbury, England to help him prevent Dieterhoffmann and a Nazi team from finding the Spear of Longinus. After an escape through Wales, they rebuilt the spear near New Grange and defeated Dieterhoffmann, though Otto Nehrkorn managed to steal the spear from them.
Countries in Europe (20th century)[edit | edit source]
- Russia / Soviet Union / Russian Federation
- Vatican City
- Portions of Ottoman Empire - Turkey
While not part of the European continental mainland, these island countries are often considered part of Europe culturally and politically:
Historical and cultural groups of Europe[edit | edit source]
Appearances[edit | edit source]
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
- Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis
- Indiana Jones and the Spear of Destiny
Sources[edit | edit source]
- The Adventures of Indiana Jones
- The World of Indiana Jones
- Indiana Jones and the Lands of Adventure
- Powder Keg - Europe 1900 to 1914 (Non-fiction source)