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General of the Armies, John Joseph Pershing was a senior United States Army officer. Veteran of the hunt for Pancho Villa's revolutionary forces during the Mexican Revolution, Pershing would go on to play another pivotal role during World War I.


Early life[]

John J. Pershing attended West Point when he was young. When he grew up, he distinguished himself in battles of the American Indian Wars against the Apache and the Sioux, leading him to learn to speak Apache while insisting on discipline and obedience. He earned a law degree while teaching at the University of Nebraska, becoming an instructor at West Point. He then commanded the all-black 10th Cavalry, earning the nickname "Black Jack".[1]

After being transferred to the Philippines, Pershing helped to resolve the Moro Rebellion against American occupation by studying the Moro culture, learning to how keep peace with the least bloodshed. President Theodore Roosevelt then promoted Pershing to brigadier general after his service in the Russo-Japanese War.[1]

Mexican Revolution[]

In the early 1910s, during the Mexican Revolution orchestrated by the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa and his forces, Pershing was one of the American soldiers who participated on the hunt for Villa like George Smith Patton, Jr.[2]

World War I[]

Following his service at Mexico, holding the rank of general, Pershing went on to participate in World War I. Pershing arrived at the French port of Boulogne on the morning of June 13, 1917 aboard a ship, bringing a long-awaited glimmer of hope but then made the French wait months while their troops continued to perish before he allowed his troops, hardly more than civilians in uniform, to offer any relief.[2] He insisted that American units needed to serve American leadership rather than under French or British command.[1]

However, Pershing eventually transformed his small inexperienced force into a vast, highly skilled army,[2] even though mobilization took a year, with the American units helping to bring fresh energy to the war, routing the Germans at San Mihiel and breaking through German lines.[1] Pershing's army, known as the American Expeditionary Force, ultimately helped the Allies to win the war once and for all in late 1918.[1] The future Colonel Musgrove served as a low-level administrative aide for Pershing during this time.[3]

For Pershing's efforts, he was granted the title "General of the Armies", a rank previously held by just one man: George Washington, the first President of the United States of America.[1]


Pershing's army, in addition to helping win the war, also went on to become the foundation for the modern American military which defined the 20th century.[2]

Personality and traits[]

John J. Pershing was described as a very upright and stern, barrel-chested man with a distinctive big moustache. Participant of two great conflicts of history, Pershing did what he needed to help and ultimately came out victorious in both situations.[2]

Behind the scenes[]

John J. Pershing was played by Peter Marinker in Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of the Jackal.



Notes and references[]

External links[]