The Ottoman Empire was an empire that lasted from the 1300s to 1922, centered around the lands currently known as Turkey in Asia Minor. For six centuries, it served as the primary crossroads between the Western and Eastern worlds. At the height of its power in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire controlled all of Asia Minor, Egypt and other coastal parts of North Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Balkans and lands around the Black Sea in Europe. By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had lost much of its land in Europe and Africa to countries becoming independent, or falling under the control of European rivals.
In the early 20th century, several revolutions had reduced the power of the empire, which sided with Germany in World War I. The United Kingdom had helped the Arabs to revolt in 1916, and Russia took control of lands in the Caucausus region. After the war, the empire was carved apart by the victorious powers, setting the the borders of the modern Middle East, and Turkish nationalists overthrew the weakened state and formed the modern state of Turkey.
The Ottoman Empire was ruled by a Sultan, who presided over both the civil and military authorities. While ruled as a Muslim state, the empire was relatively tolerant to other religious groups including Jews and Eastern Orthodox Christians, which were allowed to establish their own communities. The Ottoman military was one of the first to use muskets and cannons, and later was one of the first to adopt airplanes.
Adventures in the Ottoman Empire
In the 16th century, Emir Ali Bey, possessor of the Invincible Ruby, helped to conquer Greece and parts of Europe all the way to Austria for the Ottoman Empire. After he lost the ruby, part of the empire began to collapse.
In 1918, Indiana Jones traveled to Istanbul as a spy for French intelligence, and discovered a Turkish plot to kill French spies, as well as fell in love with Molly, an American teaching at Halide Edib's school for girls.
General Mustafa Kemal considered the Ottoman Empire as dying, and wished to maintain Turkish identity and the integrity of Turkey's borders. He kept a stance against the war minister and alliegiance with the Germans. Some believed that the Turkish Army had become more disillusioned with the Sultan Mehmed VI and would be willing to follow Kemal.
Locations in the Ottoman Empire
- Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul)
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles – "Istanbul, September 1918" → Masks of Evil
- Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge (Mentioned only)
- Indiana Jones Adventures: Volume 2: Curse of the Invincible Ruby (Mentioned only)
- Colonel Lawrence's War - T.E. Lawrence and Arabia (Non-fiction source)
- The Ottoman Empire - A World of Difference (Non-fiction source)
- The Best Intentions - The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles (Non-fiction source)