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During the script development of Raiders of the Lost Ark in the late 1970s to 1980, writer Lawrence Kasdan went through a number of drafts to produce the completed screenplay. Although the plot points largely remained the same throughout, based on the story conference Kasdan had attended with George Lucas and Steven Spielberg, a number of elements changed including dropped characters and names. Certain set pieces were also removed which would be recycled for the film's follow-up Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.[1]

Script draftsEdit

First draftEdit

Peru, 1936Edit

The story begins in the "Eyebrow of the Jungle", on the forested eastern slopes of the Andes. On the approach to the Temple of the Chachapoyan Warriors, nicknamed the "House of Death", the indigenous Yahua porters are spooked by its reputed curse and flee. Barranca is killed by Indiana Jones when he realizes that the archaeologist has a map to the treasure and attempts to put a bullet in his back. Jones ties Barranca up with a crack of his whip then a quick pull causes the Peruvian guide to shoot himself dead.[2]

Jones and Satipo eventually escape the temple together. Satipo's own attempt to betray for Jones for the idol – a tiny jeweled figurine – is cut short as a Hovitos spear suddenly bursts from his thorax.[2]

With help from his waiting British pilot Jock, Jones successfully gets away with the idol and returns with it to the National Museum in Washington DC.[2]

Washington DCEdit

Jones's old friend Marcus Brody, the curator, is pleased with the acquisition of the idol now displayed in his office but lets Jones know that important men are awaiting the archaeologist in a conference room across the hall, aware that Jones was returning before Brody did.[2]

The first draft sees Jones meeting Musgrove and Eaton, of US Army Intelligence who are joined by a G-man, White House representative Eric Davona. Brody introduces his friend to the visitors after which he is dismissed from the room and the rest of the story itself.[2]

The three men tell Jones about Adolf Hitler, of whom Jones has a passing familiarity, and his obsession with the occult including his plans to annex Austria with the intent of claiming the Spear of Destiny. Jones is also told of an intercepted Nazi communique indicating that a German excavation outside Cairo has uncovered something called Tanis.[2]

As in the final film, Jones explains that Tanis is one of the possible resting places of the Ark of the Covenant and tells the legend of Shishak's capture of the relic. However, he defers expertise on Tanis to his colleague Dr. Calvin Stansbury so leads the government agents to Stansbury's office in the basement. There, Jones is largely silent as Stansbury explains the rest of the Tanis background and the Lost Ark's supernatural powers but there is a moment where Jones quickly stops Stansbury's segue about a man named Abner. The scene also includes a gag where it's revealed that Stansbury is aware of Hitler's secret designs on Austria as hearsay, dumbfounding the men from Washington.[2]

With the headpiece to the Staff of Ra originally conceived of as being in two parts, Stansbury notes that one half is in the possession of the Shanghai-based Chinese warlord Tengtu Hok. After a meaningful look at Jones, the man doesn't explain the whereabouts of the rest of it.[2]

Indiana Jones is woken up in his Mayflower Hotel room at 3:00am by Davona and his companions. They want to utilize Jones's services to frustrate Hitler's efforts to capture the Ark whether or not the relic has its reputed powers. Although they're trying to delay and prevent the Führer plunging "the world into hell," Jones isn't particularly motivated to help. When an appeal to the archaeologist's patriotism doesn't work, the men indicate that they have since looked into the Abner mentioned back at the museum and are aware that not only is Abner Ravenwood Jones's former mentor at the University of Chicago but also an expert on Tanis. When asked if Ravenwood has part of the Staff of Ra headpiece, Jones points out that he did once but hasn't heard from him in five years and last saw him a decade ago.[2]

The intelligence agents concede that they haven't managed to trace Ravenwood's whereabouts further than Nepal in '31 to which Jones remarks that there's no reason to believe the Nazis are anywhere nearer to discovering the Ark than anyone else in past millennia. Eaton confesses that they have also learned that a certain Frenchman is headed to Cairo based on the evidence out of the Tanis digsite. The name alone is enough to convince Jones to take the job: Victor Lovar.[2]

Davona gives Jones $10,000 in expenses but the archaeologist refuses the ticket to Egypt. He's going to China first to "see what it takes to separate Tengtu Hok from one of his prize pieces."[2]

ShanghaiEdit

While leaving the busy Shanghai airport, Jones is suddenly flanked by two men, American intelligence agent Buzz Kehoe and his Chinese contact Bang Chow, who slip out of the crowd and walk with him. The pair indicate a couple of trenchcoated Germans, departing via a Mercedes limousine, who arrived three hours before Jones. Chow managed to slow them at customs but they're headed to a meeting with Hok so Jones's allies have to be quick. Chow opens the door to a men's restroom which reveals itself to actually be an airport exit that puts them next to Kehoe's less than impressive Ford sedan.[2]

On the drive to Hok's Palace, it's revealed that the Chinese warlord has fallen in with the invading Japanese and the Nazis have used their national ties with Japan so Hok will loan out his portion of the headpiece to them. Kehoe warns that Hok even has a pair of samurai guarding his collection.[2]

Hok

Tengtu Hok storyboard.

For speed, Jones infiltrates the palace vents alone while Chow busies himself by looking for an explosive distraction to assist the archaeologist. As Hok entertains the German agents and their driver, Jones makes his way to the warlord's personal museum. A giant golden gong hangs from the ceiling and its hammer has numerous tiny threads connected to the display cases. As he reaches the headpiece, Jones hears a noise and turns to see a samurai warrior charging him at full speed wielding a katana. He drops his assailant with two rounds from his pistol but the second swordsman appears and slices off the barrel of the gun.[2]

Jones quickly gives himself room and uncoils his bullwhip with a crack. The samurai is surprised by this development but welcomes the challenge of pitting a sword against whip.[2]

Reacting to a noise, Hok and the Germans hurry towards the museum when the limousine explodes, sending the group back toward it to investigate.[2]

Jones and the warrior keep each other at bay as the bullwhip and sword swings are too quick for each other. Jones finds his opening when he cracks the whip at the samurai's feet. With the swordsman's focus on jumping above the leather strip, the third leap sees the whip is suddenly brought up from the floor and coil around the man's neck. With a murderous pull from Jones, the samurai is dead where he stands.[2]

On seeing the flaming remains of the car two floors below, the worried Hok heads back to the museum entrance, which is accessed by a walkway overlooking the palace moat, by himself. Jones uses his fallen enemy's katana to break the headpiece's display case which sends the sound of the gong throughout the building. Enraged, Hok takes a moment to arm himself with a Thompson submachine gun then crosses to the museum. The walkway explodes behind him.[2]

Hok bursts through the museum's doors and sprays the room with bullets. Cut off from his exit, Jones ducks behind a column and unhooks the ceiling gong. He rolls the gong and runs with it towards the window as bullets loudly bounce off his makeshift shield. Realizing that a marble bench is about to stop the gong, Jones runs along it and dives through the window chased by machine gun fire.[2]

Jones lands on the jutting first floor roof and is immediately shot at by the Nazis from what's left of the walkway above. The archaeologist sprints across the museum rooftop to get away. In a back alley, Kehoe slowly drives his sedan along the side of the building trying to spot Jones. Above, Jones jumps down to land on top of the car but the vehicle's poor condition means that the archaeologist falls straight through and into the back seat.[2]

After they pick up Bang Chow and with the headpiece section acquired, Jones tells Kehoe that he needs to get to Nepal. The intelligence agent tells him that there's a midnight flight to New Delhi, which is close enough for Jones, then takes his two companions to get food.[2]

NepalEdit

Jones catches his flight aboard a DC-3. Although there are few other passengers, those that are there are an international mix of Chinese, Indian and European travelers, including a friendly, bespectacled "Little Old Lady." Jones takes an aisle seat, placing a leather valise in which he deposited the headpiece during the escape from Hok in the window seat next to him and goes to sleep.[2]

At dawn, all of the passengers and crew get up and bail out of the plane with parachutes and Jones's valise mid-flight.[2]

Jones is later jolted from his slumber by a sudden dip from the otherwise empty plane. Realizing his predicament, he scrambles to break into the locked cockpit including a moment where he is almost thrown out of the open exit door and has to pull himself back inside. Gaining access to the controls proves futile as the plane is about to crash into a mountain. With all the parachutes gone, Jones quickly jury-rigs a way to escape the plane wrapped in an inflatable rubber life raft connected to a CO2 flask then jumps.[2]

The fully inflated raft with Jones on board lands on a snowy mountain slope as the plane smashes through a box canyon, loses its wings and explodes. A Sherpa village shaman performing a ritual for the settlement's assembled inhabitants sees Jones behind them, unable to stop his descent, fly by in the raft. The archaeologist manages to give a little wave but the incredulous shaman decides to keep what he saw to himself. Jones eventually lands in a snowbank no worse for wear considering the circumstances. As he checks himself, his raised shirt reveals that the headpiece section is securely taped to his back.[2]

Jones, riding a yak, is led across a mountain trail guided by a Sherpa. He resupplies at a store and loads a car that he has acquired before heading onto Patan.[2]

The events at The Raven are largely the same as the finished film. However, Marion Ravenwood is introduced breaking up a 2:00am fight in the bar between a Sherpa and an Australian climber, ejecting all the patrons. One has not left: Indiana Jones. Jones discovers from Marion that her father, Abner, has been killed in an avalanche two years earlier while on a dig. It's strongly implied in the dialogue that Marion has had to prostitute herself at The Raven to survive until the previous bar owner went "snow crazy" and left her the saloon as he was being hauled away. It's also revealed that after their liaison a decade prior – when Marion would be around 15 – Jones walked out of her life after promising he'd be back.[2]

Jones is eventually told to return the next day as Marion claims that she needs time to find the medallion she received from her father, the other half of the headpiece to the Staff of Ra, having sold all of Abner Ravenwood's artifacts, "the junk he wasted his life on."[2]

With Jones gone, Marion reveals that she still has the medallion. The Nazi Belzig, a name that would become Toht instead, then arrives with his men. Jones prevents Marion's torture and all of Belzig's allies are killed. Belzig himself is sent away fleeing after burning his hand on the heated-up headpiece which facilitates the character's escape.[2]

CairoEdit

In Cairo, the Monkey Man and his capuchin – which wears a turban and a carries a satchel on its back – secretly observe Stanton, an American intelligence agent, step out of a shop, Americo Import-Export Inc. With the coast seemingly clear, he brings out Indiana Jones and Marion Ravenwood and the pair move on to the house of Sallah, who is thrilled to reunite with Jones. The Americans meet Sallah's large family, including Abu, an older son who cannot speak without sounding "either goofy or guilty."[2]

The surprise appearance of the capuchin monkey is also welcomed into the home. Later that night, while Marion and Sallah's wife and daughters are in the kitchen, and Jones and Sallah are in the courtyard, the monkey raids the visitors' bedroom, scooping up useful pieces of paper into its satchel then departs through a window.[2]

Sallah examines the completed headpiece to the Staff of Ra and is disturbed by his archaeologist friend's account. As a worker on the Tanis digs, he explains that the German excavation has presented itself as a purely scientific undertaking to the Egyptian authorities so what Jones tells him of Hitler makes him regret that he has been aiding a great evil. He elects to remain at the site to assist Jones.[2]

The digger explains that the Nazis have found the Map Room and regrets that he is unable to read the markings on the headpiece but their conversation also mentions the presence of an archaeologist colleague of Jones's called Jules Spencer who is in Egypt working on the Fatimid City digs. Jones tells Sallah that he's meeting Stanton alone at the Tavern of the Crocodiles to collect the money he needs to send Marion safely back to the US.[2]

The tavern is protected by a 15-foot moat sans bridge inhabited by crocodiles and features a lone stepping stone. A sleazy "Arab in Black" sidles up to Jones and demonstrates the way across by using the back of one of the reptiles as the stone is too slippery. The attempt for Jones isn't as nimble. He doesn't heed native advice and almost loses his balance on the stepping stone, just managing to stay upright with his other foot on a crocodile then jumps the rest of the way narrowly avoid snapping jaws.[2]

Stanton isn't inside but Victor Lovar is. Jones's longtime rival reveals that Tengtu Hok actually made copies of his segment of the Staff of Ra headpiece so the Frenchman will soon have the Ark of the Covenant. The Lovar of the first draft is more careful of upsetting his Nazi allies than the film's Belloq but, being observed by German henchmen in the shadows, he quietly voices his intent to hand the Ark over to Hitler only once he's done with it.[2]

Jones leaves but a waiter redirects him towards the rear exit which provides a path across the moat via a drawbridge built from a section of the wall. In an alley, Stanton steps out of the shadows in front of Jones only to fall down dead revealing three Arabian daggers in his back.[2]

The next day, Jones, Marion and the monkey make their way through the busy Cairo streets. Jones would rather Marion remain at Sallah's home for her own safety but she intends to visit Jules Spencer, a former student of Abner Ravenwood, to inform him of her father's demise. The pair are abandoned by the capuchin who reunites with the Monkey Man who relays information to "Bad Arabs" and a German Agent. The group ambushes Jones and Marion in the bazaar, and the archaeologist urges Marion to run. She flees and hides in a basket. As in the film, her location is betrayed by the capuchin and she is kidnapped, then tipped into the back of a Chevy. Jones gives chase through and out of the city on the back of a camel during which Marion is instead bundled into a Ford automobile. Her would-be rescuer notices the switch when he catches sight of the bright red scarf that Marion is wearing. The pursuit is brought to an end when Jones overcomes his antagonists but Marion's vehicle is taken over a cliff edge and explodes on impact.[2]

Devastated by Marion's death, Jones returns to Sallah's. There, unaware of the capuchin's treachery, Jones is reunited with the monkey. Sallah comes back from his work at Tanis and, through a series of flashbacks, tells Jones of how he saw a blacksmith – under the observation of Lovar and high-ranking Nazi Schliemann – at work reconstructing the headpiece the Staff of Ra from a combination of Hok's replica and a drawing of Marion's medallion. He notices that Lovar's copy of the artifact lacks the markings of Marion's but, with Marion gone, Jones no longer cares about the Lost Ark.[2]

Jones is later visited by Jules Spencer who has been alerted to Jones's predicament. Struggling to convince Jones not to give up on the Ark, Spencer brings his fellow archaeologist to his Fatimid City excavation to reignite the man's passion. The pair go to Jules's house after followed by an individual, who is not the Monkey Man, that poisons a bowl of dates prepared by Jules's manservant Jamal. As Jones and Jules figure out that Lovar is digging in the wrong place, there is physical comedy between the monkey and Jules's cat before the capuchin is killed having eaten too many tainted dates.[2]

TanisEdit

Indiana Jones (disguised as a native digger), Sallah and Abu head to the Tanis digs in two trucks along with other workers and Omar, another old friend of the archaeologist. Sallah shows Jones the location of the Map Room but volunteers the aid of his son to help while he will be busy making sure the Nazi excavation is loud enough to disguise the work being done elsewhere by Jones and the workers once the true location of the Ark of the Covenant is revealed.[2]

While Jones is in the Map Room, there is a tense sequence where Abu is ordered by a Nazi to bring the rope Jones needs to climb out of the structure to help free a Jeep stuck in the sand. The boy also has to serve a line of hungry Germans demanding breakfast before managing to string together a makeshift rope for Jones from clothing and a Nazi flag. When the archaeologist escapes the Map Room, he evades the attention of Nazi soldiers by hiding in a tent where he discovers that Marion Ravenwood is there alive, bound and gagged.[2]

Marion reveals that her captors switched cars a second time and also mentions that Victor Lovar is attracted to her which she has taken advantage of to stay unharmed.[2]

Much of the rest of the Tanis scenes play as they do in the finished film. Notably different is the absence of Sallah from the uncovering of the snake-infested Well of the Souls. Jones refuses Abu and Omar's help in retrieving the Ark of the Covenant but Abu ignores him and jumps down to assist Jones while he uses oil and fire to clear a path to the Ark's resting place. Meanwhile, one of Omar's diggers slips away and Lovar tries to convince Marion to co-operate with the Nazis. Belzig then arrives accompanied by Schliemann and his aide Gobler. Jones and Abu load the Ark into its crate, during which Jones has to stop him from reaching out to the golden relic: "Don't touch it! Never touch it!"[2]

The Ark is lifted out of the Well followed by Abu. When Jones grabs the rope to leave, it falls down next to him and he sees Lovar, Schliemann and Gobler. With Abu, Omar and the rest of his workers held at gunpoint, Omar realizes that his digger betrayed them but his attempt to lunge at him is intercepted by the butt of a machine gun. Marion Ravenwood is thrown into the pit with and the pair are sealed into the Well of the Souls as Lovar respectfully bids his rival adieu.[2]

Nevertheless, Jones and Marion escape through a wall into catacombs then out overlooking the makeshift airfield that the Nazis have established at the dig. The Flying Wing lands and Gobler instructs its mechanic to quickly refuel the craft so it can carry the Ark out of the country. Jones's attempt to hijack the plane, as in the film, only leads to its destruction so the Ark is quickly loaded onto a truck. The archaeologist directs Abu and Marion to find Sallah, see if he can arrange a flight to England, and head back to Omar's home where Jones can hide the Ark. During the subsequent desert chase, Jones goes after the Ark on a motorcycle and Belzig is killed along with Gobler when their car is sent over a cliff.[2]

Jones successfully commandeers the truck and takes it back to Omar's. That night, Sallah informs Jones and Marion that he was unable to charter a flight but managed to book passage on a tramp steamer crewed by African pirates that he trusts. Omar's pet dog at the Ark truck, spooked by its presence. At the dock, the Bantu Wind's captain, Simon Katanga, observes Jones and Marion saying goodbye to Sallah and his son.[2]

Opening of the ArkEdit

Out on the Mediterranean, Katanga convinces Jones to entrust the care of the Ark crate to his crew for the voyage by telling him of their mutual acquaintance in Petrovich, the "Bloody Vulture" who once told Katanga about his adventure with the archaeologist in "the islands." Jones retires to the cabin he shares with Marion. There, among other things, he apologizes to Marion for burning down The Raven and the pair spend an intimate night together.[2]

The Nazi interception of the Bantu Wind is largely the same as the final film but the ship is blocked by ten German submarines including the Wurrfler. Marion and the Ark are captured, and on board the submarine, Schliemann is convinced by its captain, an "honorable career Navy man", not to destroy the ship as there is nothing to be gained from it. The vessels' captains acknowledge each other with respect. Losing his hat in the process, Indiana Jones sneaks aboard the Wurrfler and secures himself to its periscope, which remains above the surface, with his whip.[2]

Jones spends at least one punishing day and night tethered to the submarine as it eventually makes its way to a seemingly deserted "lovely island." At one point during the journey, the Wurrfler is shadowed by sharks but nothing comes of it. However, when the submarine starts to dive, Jones is quickly forced to improvise and uses his leather jacket to create an air pocket just before he submerges. In the underwater tunnel, the rough ride tears Jones away from the Wurrfler and it goes on ahead without him.[2]

The submarine surfaces at an underground base built into the hollow interior of the island which has tunnels with a mine car track. The Ark of the Covenant is loaded into a mine car with Lovar, Schliemann and the other Nazis as well the captive Marion Ravenwood following behind.[2]

At the Tabernacle, set up in a larger cavern with tents erected, Lovar is about to open the Ark when Jones appears with a bazooka stolen from a nearby munitions storage. His threat to blow up the artifact unless Marion is freed is quickly undone by one of Schliemann's men. Lovar prevents Schliemann from executing the archaeologist in front of the Ark so Jones is escorted outside the Tabernacle by Schliemann and three of his soldiers. When the Frenchman opens the Ark, all of those present are instantly killed by rays of light. In the brief moment before his own end, Lovar experiences "some kind of sublime, transcendental knowledge" which leaves him smiling one way or the other.[2]

In the ensuing chaos, Jones takes advantage of his captors being blinded by the light, subduing two of them while Schliemann takes out another in the confusion. Jones runs back into the burning Tabernacle, the Ark once again sealed, and the captive Marion is revealed alive when the flames eat what's left of the tents. Jones unties her and it is Marion who convinces the archaeologist to retrieve the Ark. The pair make their way through the base with the relic, dropping it into a mine car and climbing in with it. His sight returned, Schliemann notices their escape and enlists the help of some of his men to go after them.[2]

Bullets are exchanged in the subsequent mine car chase until the fires ignite the base's fuel reserves. Schliemann and the Nazis can only watch as the explosions rush up the tunnels and consume them. Unable to slow down their own transportation, Jones, Marion and the Ark are thrown into the waters of the docking bay. When the flames reach the munitions storage, the entire base begins to collapse. Marion says goodbye to Jones and confesses her love for him as rocks falls about them.[2]

Cast credits roll over the island's exterior as it settles from the events inside.[2]

Marion Ravenwood and Indiana Jones pop up to the surface of the water followed by the Ark of the Covenant.[2]

At the Pentagon, Jones and Marion are told the fate of the Ark by Davona, Musgrove and Eaton under observation by a Washington Bureaucrat. Dialogue directly addressed to Marcus Brody in response his question of the Ark's whereabouts in the finished film but missing from the script itself suggests the presence of Brody as well. When Jones and Ravenwood are dismissed, the crew credits play over their exit until they reach the steps of the Pentagon.[2]

Jones jokingly settles for Marion in place of the Ark as she consoles him. Meanwhile, the relic itself is quickly boxed up inside a wooden crate at an undisclosed location.[2]

As the end credits roll, a little old warehouseman stores the Ark away, hidden among many similar containers.[2]

Second draftEdit

Horse

The second draft brought in Jones's pursuit of the Ark on horseback.

For the second draft, Lawrence Kasdan was tasked with reducing the screenplay's 144 pages to around 100. Much of this came about through the restructuring of the scenes in Cairo, some of which were combined or cut altogether. George Lucas deleted the lines about Adolf Hitler's search for the Spear of Destiny on his copy of the script while making notes.[1]

The characters of Jules Spencer and Abu – not to be confused with the later servant of Imam – were dropped to flesh out the role of Sallah whose character took on an interest in American slang and baseball.[1]

When Marion Ravenwood is kidnapped, Indiana Jones goes after her on foot. It is after her 'death' that Jones retreats to the bar and encounters his nemesis now going by the name of Emile Belloq. The second draft introduces the scene where Sallah's nine children rescue Jones from the bar.[1]

In the later desert chase, Jones's motorcycle is written out in favor of his pursuit of the Ark of the Covenant on horseback.[1]

Third draftEdit

By the revised third draft, Satipo doesn't make it out of the Temple of the Chachapoyan Warriors and goes to his on-screen fate caught in the same light trap that killed Forrestal. Emile Belloq's introduction is moved to the opening sequence in Peru where he claims the idol from Indiana Jones and sends the Hovitos after his rival.[3]

Jones returns to his office at a "small Eastern college" in New England where he is a professor of archaeology. His attractiveness to his students is shown when two female co-eds quickly steal a glance at Jones through his office door's window. The scenes also briefly introduce Jones's teaching assistant Phil, an eager to please graduate student.[3]

Gone by the third draft are the characters of the Eric Davona and Calvin Stansbury. Davona's dialogue is shared by Eaton and Musgrove, who have approached Jones to help their search for Abner Ravenwood, while Stansbury's expertise is instead knowledge held by Jones and Marcus Brody. The meeting takes place in the professor's "lecture hall/classroom" and as this version of the script cuts to it already in progress, Jones's introduction as an "obtainer of rare antiquities" is absent.[3]

Afterwards, Brody visits Jones at his home which is beyond the means of an honest college professor. Jones answers the door in a tuxedo as he is in the middle of entertaining a beautiful woman. The National Museum curator is taken into the study for privacy who tells Jones of the Washington's interest in hiring the archaeologist to go after the Ark of the Covenant. Brody also warns his friend about Tengtu Hok's reputation and ties to the Japanese.[3]

The successful retrieval of Hok's part of the headpiece to the Staff of Ra no longer leads to the sequence of Jones bailing out of his plane mid-flight in an inflatable raft. Instead, he simply flies to Nepal under the observation of a trenchcoated European spy who later reports back to Belzig off-screen after Marion Ravenwood ejects Jones from The Raven.[3]

The Cairo marketplace includes the gag where both the Monkey Man and his capuchin exchange Nazi salutes with the German Agents. At what is then simply called the "Arab Bar," Belloq mentions that he didn't escape Peru with the idol after all: "I was lucky to get away with my life. The Hovitos proved quite narrow-minded about the whole matter."[3]

The revelation that Belloq is digging in the wrong place happens at Sallah's home by the third draft. Sallah's wife, at this stage having been named as Fayah, is the one unwittingly providing the poisoned dates while a friend of Sallah, an old man named Amir, has been brought in to understand the markings on the Staff of Ra headpiece. The staff itself is measured in jamirs.[3]

Much of the rest of the script follows previous drafts but Simon Katanga's conversation involving Petrovich has been dropped and the audience would learn of Jones and Marion's survival from the mine car chase through a long shot of the island which sees a small fishing boat escaping out to sea. The credits begin as the fate of the Ark is revealed.[3]

Fourth draftEdit

Emile Belloq's name was changed to Chartiere for the fourth draft only.[1]

Fifth draftEdit

With the fifth draft, Chartiere returned to being Emile Belloq. However, Lucasfilm Ltd. researcher Debbie Fine – dealing with the legalities of the screenplay – cautioned against it to avoid confusion with an existing person. Thus Emile becomes Rene Belloq. The same reason would also change the Nazi colonel from Schliemann to Dietrich.[1] Other characters renamed include Marion Ravenwood's bartender, Mahdlo (to Mohan), and agent Belzig (Toht).[4] A real museum administrator named Brody meant that the Marcus Brody could not be referred to solely by his surname; forename or full name only. He also had to be a curator for "a large museum in Washington" as the National Museum could not be used.[1]

Removed from the script were the Shanghai and mine car chase sequences as they were too expensive for the production but the removal of the chase also put the focus back onto the Ark of the Covenant with the its opening by Belloq becoming the film's climax instead.[1]

AppearancesEdit

CharactersEdit

LocationsEdit

ArtifactsEdit

Vehicles and vesselsEdit

EventsEdit

SourcesEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

External linksEdit

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